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Do you know why SNM was created in 1981?..

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As I was writing about the past history of Somalia , mainly the power structure of the October revolution and the impact certain individuals had on that government, I came to realize that sometimes the perception of the people could be far from reality. There was always gaps between perception and reality when it comes Somali tribal histories. Each one of them have their own perception of realities derived from their own narratives, collective experience , stories passed to generations , and hardships they endured during tough times. If the gab between the realities and the perception people held becomes huge, then we will have constant misunderstanding of the past and future.


When I ask , what is the main reasons the Somali National Movement or SNM was created ?, it doesn't mean that the movement didn't have clear purpose, or mission, It had, but I am exclusively inquiring the most fundamental reasons that forced those people to rise up against the system and start an armed struggle. Usually oppression, imprisonment, political murder, suppression of the culture, political marginalization and economic embargo of a people, are some of the main reasons people rise to overthrow the ruling order. I would like the members of SNM community here and else where to help us understanding the main reasons that made these people to create an armed struggle in the early eighties.


SNM was first created in February, 1981, in Jeddah Saudi Arabia by expatriate Isaaqis living in the gulf countries. The official formation and proclamation is April 04, 1981 in London , England. Since early 1981 is the crucial years , let us examine what took place between October 1969, and December, 1980. What took place for those 11 year of the Kacaan that culminate the uprising and formation of SNM?.


As I pointed out with my last articles, the most powerful men in the Kacaan government were northerners. Almost 40% of the officers of the coup were Reer Woqooyi. once again here is the list:


1- General Ahmed Ali Qorsheel, From Sanaag.

2- General Mohamed Caynaashe, from Sanaag.

3-Colonel Ismacil A. Abokor, Sheekh, Togdheer.

4-Colonel Ahmed Suleyman cabadalle, sheekh, Togdheer

5-colonel Mohamed Cali Shire, from Laascanood.

6-Colonel Faarax Wacays duule, from Awdal

7-Colonel Ahmed Mohamuud farah, from Hargeisa.

8-Colonel Ahmed Hassan Muuse, from Burco.

9-Colonel Muuse Rabiile Good, from Boorama

10- Colonel Mohamed Cumar Jees, from Hargeisa.





the term Reer Woqoyi, means those who hail from that region without tribal classification. Eve n if we separate the SNM community from the group, by far they were the largest office holders of the Kacaan. No other group ever held, diverse and powerful cabinet posts in those years, except eighties when things started declining and the ' Gedo community and 'D' block hegemony was out of the box with ugly consequences.


Almost every powerful position of the government were alternated by these Northern politicians and military officers. some argued that the northerners were midwifes, others claim that they were marginalized. Then how come did they held almost all sensitive and powerful ministries of the Kacaan?. In fact if you combine all the Reer Woqoyi, you could say that, they were the ones who oppressed other Somalis with their close nit clan affiliation and nepotism . They had two vice Presidents, one was intelligence chief, the other , chief architect of the socialism and state propaganda chief.


At one point, Jamac Mohamed Qalib was the Interior minister. In 1970, the finance minister was Mohamed hawadle Madar, the foreign minister was Cumar Carte Qaib, the planning minister was Siilaanyo, the information minister was Ismaciil A. Abokor, and may more. In another time in the seventies, and early eighties, both the National police chief and the national prison warden chief ( Taliyaha ciidanka asluubta), were both from SNM community. Prison wardens in the dictatorial Somalia were not your typical correctional officers. The man who was in charge was holding political prisoners in " Labaatan Jirow and other notorious jails. I remember in the mid eighties walking from Number 4, bus station to the national university Gahayr. Just before you reach the campus , we used to pass this huge mansion with open gates and dozen luxury cars sitting. Everyone used to notice. It was the home of the chief of the prison guards general Isamacil Ahmed ismacil of Burco.


If you leave behind the Reer Woqooyi name and exclude others who were also powerful , like Galaydh, Dafle, Mohamed Cali shire, Muuse Rabiile the Mohamed Jibril of ' Qaloocan", you still had a dominant role in the kacaan by the SNM community. At one point, from Hargeisa region alone , there were , Cumar Carte, Mohamed Hawdale Madar, Jamac Mohamed qalib, and Ahmed mohamuud Farah. All were Hargeisa natives running huge ministries, from foreign, public works and internal security. . Add that to Ahmed Siilaanyo, Ahmed Hassan Muuse and Ismaaciil A. abokor and Prison chief Ismacil A. Ismaaciil , all Burco natives. . If you are running the foreign policy of the country , the finances, the planning , the police, the prisons and the propaganda arm of the state what is left behind.




How about the people of Bay and Bakool. People who had some influence and good number of seats in the civilian parliament over thrown by the military. They didn't have one single member among the coup leaders of the kacaan. In fact other than the Gedo community, who had more than three members including Siyaad Barre, the people who hail from Afgooye to kismaayo had one single member by the name of Cabdi Warsame Isaaq. After the collapse of the state, both the HAG and the " D" block overrun their countryside without mercy. They didn't have passport to escape. They were the people who lived off the land, innocent people that the state should have protected. This large community never held anything close to the a quarter of what the SNM community had in the Kacaan.


Compare also this with the Puntlanders which the Kacaan called " Canaasiir". From 1969-1980, non of them ever held any position of significant power. Unlike the Reer Woqoyi, no Puntlander ever held the interior, defence, and foreign ministry, or any top commander of the army. The only exemption was Mohamed Saciid Morgan. In 1975, he was a lieutenant body guard of the president. After he leaked the date of the coup by Puntlanders in 1978, he immediately promoted and became the son in law of Siyaad barre. in 1980 , he was promoted as a general and made the commander of the central Somalia Army division. A well known Somali professor by the name of Caalin, jokingly said " Xageed ku Aragteen jenaraal weli hooyadii dhalayso", referring the youthful unqualified son in law who became a general. Morgan didn't disappoint Siyaad barre. he not only crushed and killed every opposition or individual he suspected of rebellion, he fire bombed water wells and staved the nomads of the region. Because of his actions, the Mudug region became a ghost land in 1981.


Somalis always have their own logic on this issues, but any elementary research shows that the Puntlanders were the purged and marginalized people in the Kacaan years. That doesn't mean they were under pressure or faced hardship before they tried the coup. Although they didn't have high profile members in the highest echelons of the military, still they had a huge officer corps in the army in the seventies. Their biggest mistake was they thought the crown belonged to them and wanted to get it back. They didn't realize that the sun has already set on them , and the new sheriff in the town is a ruthless man who despises them. After the coup of April/1978, they became the enemy of the state. In the Somali political history, before that coup, the scale of the purges , jailed officers and killings were never seen before. Among the seventeen accused by being the coup plotters, sixteen out of the seventeen were puntlanders. All of them were shot by firing squad, another forty officers were condemned to life in prison, and prison sentences in dozen years. By 1981, the total purge of the puntlanders were total.




The strange thing about this Machiavellian Puntlanders is , they don't complain , mourn, or cry for those who were purged, imprisoned and killed by the Kacaan. They consider it as part of the game. They consider it the price people pay by trying to gain power. Even today, they don't have the Prime minister's position, the top military leaders , the police or even powerful ministries under the Hassan Sheekh Government, yet everyone is blaming them about the latest squabble between Culusow and Yuulka. Even our own Amin Amir is saying it is the Puntlanders who are behind the Prime minister troubles. That is why I respect them as players of the game more than anyone else.




In the cultural front , I did mention that the northern composers, singers and Poets ruled the day. They carried the Kacaan to the air waves.


among the enthusiasts of the kacaan were , poet Timacade; composers: cali sugule, Cisman askari, C/laahi Qarshe, Huseen Aw Farah, and many others. while singer were among the best to raise the national awareness of the Kacaan. the likes of Mohamed suleyman ( from berbera), sahra ahmed, Khadra, hibo, kuluc, Maanddeeq, and may more,. they were the members of the famed Waaberi folklore band that toured around the world in west Africa, Sudan, and China.



Here Timacade demanding more purges, after the Kacaan shot three comrades for treason:




Inkastoo wasiir dhib laha Jeelka lagu Dheelay


OO Dhooreyaashi Sar sare Dhabarka loo jiiday


Dadku Tawraduu Dhawrayaa oo wuu Dhursugayaaye


Dhoobadu Halkii Ay Fadhiday Looma Dhaadhicine


Dhexda Nimankii Noo Joogsaday ee Dhaxanta noo Saaray


Dhiig Yacabadii lama Qaqaban Dhiiranaan Jiraye


Jeero Waxay Naga Dhaceen Laga Dheemaalsho


Daarahan La Dhiibsaday Ilaa laga Dhawateeyo


Dhacadiidka Jeero Rag Badan Dhawda laga Saaro


Jeero rag lagu Dhoogtamow Dhaaftay La Arkaayo ( Unless many are targeted for shooting)


Dhunkaal shilinku jeeruu Noqdoo Dhuunta Mari Waayo


Dhabaqsiga La dayn Maayo, iyo Dhiilkii la is Baraye.


In this poem , Timacade is calling for more purges and elimination of the enemies of the Kacaan.



Cali sugule, proclaimed the writing of the Somali language and said:



Af qalaad Aqoontu miyaa? Maya maya, mahee, Afqaalaad Aqoontu Miyaa?


Maya ee Waa ninmbe EEbe intuu Gashaa


Ayey Nala Tahay Anagee , ma Ogtahay dib looma abuura dadkee.


Of course there were people of northern and southern origin who left the Kacaan early after they saw some of the ugly and tribal favoritism early , while others left for ideological reasons for their antipathy of communism. They were from different tribes and each one of them had his own personal reasons.


Some influential Somalis from the art community left the country. Among the first to live were Hassan Sheekh Muumin and Mohamed Hudaydi. The Composer of Shabeel Naagood ( Horyaalka Riwaayadaha), Hassan Sheekh Muumin, left Somalia in 1977 to Djibouti. Before he left the country , he met Siyaad Barre and told him " Ama Ciidan Dhis, Ama Xoog Badan yeelo, Meel Fog Gaadhi maysid., Nin ayaad waxuu xaq u lahaa ka Qaaday , mid kale ayaad wax uusan Haq u Lahayna Waad Siisay". He simply said : Injustice will eventually destroy you. He began broadcasting cultural programs from Djibouti radio. These were the heavy weights of Somali culture. He not only took part for the art , he was , like C/laahi Qarshe ,a pioneers of Somali culture .Among the Famous lyrics of Hassan Sh. Muumin were: here on culture,




Reer Guuraya iyo Gabadh Tima Tidcani


Waa waxa dalkeena u Gaara e laynagu Garte


Maantay Galadi Noo Soo Gashaye


Gobanimaaadayada Guulow adkee.





On education:

Aqoon la, aani Waa Iftiin La, aane


Ogaada ogaada dugsiyada Ogaada.



About teacher and country:

Waxan ahay Webiga Dugsiyadaa,


Waxan Ahay Wanada Macalinka


Waagi beryaba Ubax Laga Waraabsho,


Waxaan ku Weweraynaa Wadankiina Wax u Barta


Iska Jira Waxyeelada



Waddankeennu waa,

Wadnihii jidhkeenna,

Waraabinayay dhiiggoo,

Waan ku wardiyaynaa



About Somali Alphabet:

Erayada an ku Qoro


qumaati Uga Bogo


Afkii Qalaad Ha moodin ,


Carabku Qaldin Maayee


Sidii Caanaha Qudhqudhiya.




Marxab Marxab Yaa Ramadaan


Wayaa Marxabaabika Yaa Rabadaan.



And more....

Dad weynahan Hanuuna Hasaawina


Danta U hagnaa. Ma Hagranee waan U hawl Galna.



Dab iyo Dhagax La iskuma Dhuftee Kala Dhawraay. and may more. Among his playwites were: Shabeel Naagood, Gaarabildhaan, Aduunyadu Maskaxday Magan U Tahay and more.


This man has so many firsts. He had the first " Riwaayad", that opened the national theatre, and the first Riwaayad that was translated in English by Shabeel Naagood ( A leopard among women), which depicted the modern urban life and the decline of the order. He even predicted the calamities that will befall the nation, "if it buried the constitution, the rule of law, and it's faith".



Dalaalnimada Diintiyo


Dastuurka Iyo Xeerka


Hadii Dabool La Saaro


Dawo Bukuutoy Weeye...




He was replaced By Mohamud Nuur Shareeco as head of the National theatre.





In 1982, a group " Jabhads from SSDF came to him in Djibouti and asked him to broadcast an anti Siyaad Barre Radio program from Diredawa Ethiopia. He declined. Then , few months latter more " opposition guys, this time from both SSDF and SNM came to him and offered cash incentives and asked him to broadcast from Djibouti without going to Ethiopia. He told them: " I garan maysaan baan u malaynayaaye, Hooyaday Saylac bay Ku Dhalatay , Aabahayna, Harrar Buu Ku Dhashay", he continued, " I am the son of two civilizations". Hassan's father Sheekh Muumin was a refugee who left Harrar in 1897, after the Ethiopian king who replaced Emperor Menelik, King Makonen occupied the city. He settled Saylac in 1900 , where he married Hassan's mother . Then he asked them , " in late sixties some 15 years ago where were you guys?. , they said they were young men in high school or middle school. He Told them that he composed a song called , " Dawa Bukootay"(when the medicine itself becomes sick").




Dalaalnimada Diintiyo, Dastuurka iyo Xeerka,


, Hadii Dabool Sarro , Dawo Bukootay weeye.



He told them, "You haven't seen nothing yet " weli laisma gaadhine , waxa jira, waxa soo socdaa ka Daran".




You maybe bored by my erratic way of changing the topic in different direction, but I love telling these kind of stories. I also admire Allah ha u Naxariistee the Great Hassan Sheekh Muumin.




On the economic side of the issue , the SNM community were the favored people among Somalis. Most of the regions of the country were the victims of the communist national planning economic system , which denied the citizen the free movements of goods and services. In Mogadishu, the capital and the largest Somali urban center, the economy was dominated by the government , and few connected people were allowed to import things. People needed licence to import. As a young high school student, I traveled from Djibouti, Borama , Hargeisa , Burco and latter reached Mogadishu. the markets in Hargeia were busling with trade and business. The only way I can describe was , it was a boom. In Burco were I spent about a month before I left, it was the livestock hub of Somalia. Because of the war against SSDF, Central Somalia countryside and cities were ghost towns. livestock were brought from Hiiraan and Galgaduud to Burco on their way for export in Berbera. Add all that trade and commerce with the money coming from the gulf. Somali airline had two daily flights to Hargeisa, while another one was coming directly from the gulf to Berbera. An old senior Guurti member Haji Cabdi Waraabe said " Hargeisa Hadii La Dayn Lahaa London bay Noqon Lahayd.




You could pick up a bus, truck , car or any other goods from Dubai and the gulf , and bring to Berbera without licence. It was a capitalist system verses government controlled communist planning system of the south and the rest of the country.




Now, If you agree my statements about those 11 years from 1969 to 1980, then we need to investigate the main reasons about the formation of the SNM movement. Personally I didn't see anything warranting a rebellion from the activities of the Kacaan against this community. I couldn't find any thing at the end of 1980 that culminated the formation of the movement in early 1981. I couldn't see any mass killings, marginalization, or economic hardship that boiled out to the open and hastened the revolt. That doesn't mean there was nothing . There could have been small little things that made people hate the system or an underlying current that was not apparent at the moment but waiting to explode. Uninformed people may mention the UFO club in Hargeisa which was arrested for organizing a civic organization and other minor incidents, but all those incidents happen after the proclamation of SNM in 1981. Late President Cigaal said that most of the mistrust in the north was created by his imprisonment. That could be true, but those who formed the rebellion were not democrats looking for change. Otherwise , they wouldn't have set up shop in a regime controlled by a ruthless communist dictator Mengistu Haile Marriam.




After looking carefully, I concluded that non of these issues were about oppression , killing or marginalization. As someone who traveled the land during those boom years, I could confidently say, It was a rebellion of wealth and power, exercised by tribal hubris.. " Waxuu Ahaa Halgan Barwaaqo Keentay". In my humble opinion, some of the underlying issues that pushed the formation of movement were two small unrelated issues. One is tribal pride , the other was a narrative that fed the perception of the people that feeling under pressure from certain groups or tribes that must be defended. Still , non of thee issues could warrant a political violence.




The first reason was tribal pride. the coup by Puntlanders in 1978, exposed a future tribal hegemony and mistrust of the " D" block by other Somalis. Here the kacaan came to power by coup and miliatery force , using the goodwill of the people who were disgruntled by the slow but stedy civilian administration. The corruption issue which became a national talk , and the emergence of international communism, made the public eager for change. After ten years of the Kacaan rule, the war of 1977 and the sudden appearance of tribalism and nepotism in the system, people felt disappointed of the direction of the country. By seeing the battle among two groups who belong same clan affiliation, People suddenly interpreted this as a power struggle among the 'D" block. Even famous poets like Dhoodaan lamented the hegemony of the "D" block clan.




in One of his poems , he said:




Dad Soomaaliya lahaa, Calaka dogaaaye


Maxaa Keenay Daarood haday Dawladnimo Joogtay.




In my opinion, Khaliif Sheekh mohamuud of Qandale , a desprete man who was among the SSDF, also played a big role by inciting others to join the rebellion. I did listen few verses of the poem in the eighties, but in 1999, when I listened the full poem, I was astonished how this man incited people with both polemic, hubris and discord among the Somali tribes. This man from Qandala, succeeded to rally people against the Kacaan. Here is some of his poems. Check how he is highlighting the SNM who were enjoying life at that moment while he was in the trenches. In his opinion , anyone who isn't fighting against Siyaad Barre , was uncle Tom.







Majeerteen Ilaah wuxuu ka dhigay,malab sidiisiiye


Sidii miraha dhoocaan ka baxa, muudsay aadmiguye


Nin waliba wuxuu mihindisaa, inu magawshaaye.



Agoon maalki laga qaaday oo, meel kastaba jooga,


Maraykaanta naagaha qaboo, madaxa loo saaray


Oo mudanayaashii jeclaa, mooska laga yeeley.



Dadku mowdka wasyka ogyahoo, Maalig baw qoraye,


Meydkiyo raqdoodii miyaa, laga dul maansooday!


Sidii wax aan Muslim ahayn miyaa, muxubbo loo laayey!



Madfaciyo rasaastii miyaa, meel kastaba gaaray!


Kulli miraha Daarood miyaa, keen isugu miirmay!


Ma kuwaan Hartiga moodayaa, soo mashxaradaayay!



Maangaab Dhulbahanta ah miyaa, nagu maraabeeyey!


Margaguufyadii hore miyaa, muruqa noo tuujey!


Muhanniga Ogaadeen miyow, mabay xumaanteenna!



Warsangeliga maahee dadkii, mayna wada meershey


Inkastay bahnimo muujiyeen, sooma mayl bixine


Malkadaan ka sugayiyo ma iman, mowshinkaan rabaye;



Hadday ficil maqiiqaan warmuhu, nama muquufeene


Macag iyo Xadeed bay idaha, kaga maceeshaane


Macna ineeyan noo tarin miyaa, meeshi ka caddaatay!



Iidoor marduuf qaad ah helay, waa majnuun falane


Hilib maraq leh iyo roodhi bay, miidsanahayaane


Macna dawladnimo leedahayba, uma muraadaane.



Caynaanshe meeshii la dhigay, haadku malafleeye


Mudadkiisii waa kii dugaag, maalin weyn cunaye


Maskaxdiisii waa tii tukaha, looga dhigay miide.



Nabad bay macaansanahayaan, wawse maan li'iye


Wallee ama Magaalada Berbera, dhiiggu mulacyeeyey


Ama sida mawaashiga ratiga, meere lagu saaryay.



Hawiye meeluu joogaba dagaal, wayska maanacaye


Maankaba ka jare ragannimaad, meel ka soo geliye


Maaraha Siyaad baa ka dhigay, maato caano lehe.



Abgaal oo mihigaan ka badan, jaraha loo miiqye


Mudanihii Gabayruu ka dilay, oo mar soo baxaye


Waxay talo ku moosteen inay, moxogga diirtaane.




Waxay talo ku moosteen inay, moxogga diirtaane.



Habargidirta Mudug joogta ee, maashu wada fooxday


Ee layska maamulanhayoo, deyrka lagu meershey






The SNM community thought that the Puntlanders who may had political power in Mogadishu many years ago would not much their wealth, geographical location and political connection. Although Puntlanders dominated politics in the sixtes, their home provinces was back ward and poor in terms of development . Boosaaso was little fishing town, Mudug was ghost town after the rebellion and Garoowe was a small village. If this group can shake Siyaad Barre, why not us with vast wealth and major urban centres like Hargeis and Burco. In 1940, Mussolini said " We can't sit and fold our hands while others are making history". Well, they decided not to sit and wait while others were vying for power.




The second reason was small skirmishes between the Long footed dominated WSLF ( western Somalia liberation front) and another group called " the forth division" or Afraad. In the northwest and Zone five almost every community had some kind of liberation movement od Somali Galbeed. The Awdal community had " Horyaal". Tribally motivated murders and kidnappings happened between the Afraad and the WSLF. In some instances, all kind of weapons were used in these battles. The Afraad accused the Somali army for favoring the Long Foot WSLF. Both sides executed people they captured after accusing them of rape and other crimes. Some people believe these armed groups were the early formations of the SNM. Also, the Hargeisa people resented the presence of large number of refugees in the region, accusing the government of expropriations. These Somali refugees were not only in Hargeisa, but in Hiiraan, Awdal, and south west. Their presence created a lot of business activity from the United Nations and other agencies, yet in their mind they thought that the Long Foot who were among the refugees may settle in the north.



These minor issues might have carried big weight on their mind. Again In terms of political power they were on the for front. On the economic side they were booming, and on the cultural side, they ruled the airwaves. So other than seeking tribal power or hegemony, I couldn't point out any major reasons.




If you dispute my conclusions, please bring your evidence to the table without emotions. .........

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History can be funny sometimes, It's told by whoever is at your kitchen table. Facts eventually fade away....


We have appreciation for history so long as it fits our narratives.


My take on the elites in the kacaan is little different, as you were.

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Galbeedi are you writing a book?


I didn't even bother reading what you posted. In all the time I have been on this forum I have never read anything factual or even remotely true from yourself.


The SNM was created in london for one purpose to fight the communist tribalist regime in somalia. It succeeded in that objective. The northern army was wiped out all that was left was a weak powerless regime in the south and that was tipped over when the southern tribes led by aided a pro SNM protégé realised it was weak.


The SNM were not entirely perfect some groups committed crimes. That's widely accepted.


But that doesn't mean the SNM objective overall etc was bad. Your using galbeedi nonsense logics again.


The SNM was the first rebel movement in the history of that time in Africa. To surrender all power to a civilian administration and actively work towards building bridges between communities.


That is a fact.


Is that why you want to join a nation under occupation who in, 50 years of existence has not given the people of Borama one thing. It makes sense now SNM paranoia equals love of Somalia.


Awdal is an integral part of Somaliland. Been to Borama probably more times than you galbeedi. A few lose canon in the diaspora who support Awdal state is not going to hinder the unity of the people of Somaliland. The people of Awdal are good people. Who have more sense then you that's for sure.


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In its infancy, the SNM never had any meaningful support from the Duriyada population and were in fact initially seen by many people as trouble makers. However, everything changed when Siyaad Barre ignorantly thought or was badly advised that he could defeat the SNM and stay in power if he suppressed the civilian population in Somaliland. When he began a policy of collective punishment, nepotism, and clan profiling, public opinion turned permanantly against him and the ranks of the SNM swelled. He was deceived to believe that he could rely only on his D-block clan to keep him in power until it was too late.

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The issue isn't about the purpose it was created. I did said that it has clear purpose to overthrow the regime. The argument here is why you rebel when you were in the height of your prosperity.


The main point was it was created by diaspora members sipping " Casiir" in the gulf, who latter went to London. As Talaabo mentioned they were not popular among the people when they were created. There is a basic formula in any rebellion, those who oppose it will use force. This wasn't 2014 or the era of open debate. If you challenge a dictatorship, oppression will follow. First it was the creation , then it was followed by the reaction of the regime.


Usually in any rebellion , the action of the state forces people to rise up. here it was vice-versa. The AWdal people have ten times grievances and economic marginalization than SNM ever had. There is more nepotism and clannish hiring in Hargeisa than any where in the history of Somali people. A finance minister hired 1400 people in less than two years six were from AWdal. There are no guide lines . Fishing ports are blockaded for any economic activity, people in Zaylac ad lawyacado are pick pocketed by hungry customs who have check points between the cities collecting illegal money. There is total economic marginalization and embargo in Awdal. WE don't know where these millions of dollars of foreign aid money are hidden. WE are collecting money from our people to build hospitals, schools and small ports. Well we have more issues to rise up than what you were complaining against your Kacaan, and that rebellion is coming if things don't change very quickly.


Well, again what did happen in the seventies that created SNM in 1980.

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With all due respect Galbeedi there is no point of trying to create an image that the people of Somaliland had it good during the reign of General Siyad Bare. General Siyad bare was fighting a very dirty war against the people of Somaliland in the late 1980s.


Using hired Clan mercenaries to fight along side the corrupt SNA forces. Now i will address your question why was the SNM formed in Saudi Arabia there were 3 primary reasons. The first one was the way SL was neglected and this even predates General Siyad bare and the way SL came to the union and ofcourse how it became neglected region of the republic. The second reason very important the Somaliland expats tippled to Saudi Arabia and UAE because the regime was going after our money, by trying to change the franco valuta system so that he could have direct access to the Duriyad controlled livestock trade. Now the Somalilanders cared little about if general siyad bare promoted his Kith and kin into Generals and air marshals. But we will not watch and do nothing and be broke he came after our money and he paid the price for it. And the 3rd reason and this one is very important in the late 1970s when we came back from the war with the Ethiopians Somaliland colonels and soldiers were mistreated in Wajaale and Jigjiga shot on sight one day only 43 were killed for no reason and ofcourse the wslf turned into bandits and were hunting on Ethnic Somalilanders nomads in the Hawd and reserve area the Somali Kilil. Somaliland elites went to General siad bare very influential people and talked to him but he turned a blind eye and amuusnaantu wa ogolaansho so that was also a reason why the SNM was formed to protect the Somaliland people whether occupied Hawd or in Somaliland. Fighting General siad bare was a good thing the dictator had to go and his ruling Family just unfortunate so many Somalis had to suffer long after his demise.



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So basically you Galbeedi have personal grievances against ruling democratic elected government in Somaliland . And for that resason you are engaging in historic revisionism to discreit the huge sacrifices millions of Somalilanders who fought and won gainst the Millitary regime of Siyad barre, A regime that killed a half a million somalilanders and destroyed their cities ,villages and livehood not to mention millions of displaced , wounded and throw in excile many reports have been written about the brutal regime of that time , a government killing its own people ,for reference read Human rights watch edition 1990 ( a gov in war withs own people). . Whats even more absurd is the fact that you claim to be speaking for galbeed ( somaliland adal regions) but these people are the onest who founded the Somaliland republic , ( national peace conferencein borama) and have held the two most important positions in every administration since the establishment of New Somaliland republic in 1991, which are the president and vice president.even today the current vice president Zelyaci is from Borama . Before him the former two term president Riyaale kahiin was from Borama not to mention the numerous position the good people of western somaliland are holding in the political and civil society of the nation . So what is your motivation for written this as your claims have been dismissed as false, the most likely theory is that you a person who lived entire life in Moqadishu , university educated in Moqadishu and a supporter of ItalianSomalia are disillusion with the constant political infighten in moqadisho and the grim news from moqadiscio so you are trying to defelct and attack Somaliland . Sadly what you and other moqdisho supporters & people need to understand and learn is that Somaliland republic is NOT somalia its a Independent nation with a different history , political parties and civil society . JUST Like Germany and Austrians are not the same even though both nations are german speaking. Lastly I and many other somalilanders wish and pray for peace in your moqdishu howevsr its really difficult to be understanding towards a people whom are denying the truth SOMALILAND A nation who got its independence before somalia moqadisho and a people whom are obsessed with conquering Somaliland instead of working for peace and good neighbouring relations. You Are people who exceed in falsifying history as your writings IS a good exmpl. Of. So no news from the south and false nationalists as excepted .

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Saxib when was the last time you were in Borama. BORAMA today rivals Burco or Hargaisa. The city today is 100 times better then it was pre 1991. Somaliland democratically elected a president from Borama for 8 years. Today Borama has more schools and universities then any city in Somaliland. It's people trade with other Somaliland cities, Djibouti and Ethiopia. They have the same access to the ports, airports etc as any other citizens.


To compare this to the kacaan is just foolish.


I do agree that not all is perfect. In some government sectors tribalism is rampant. That is correct. That's something that needs to be addressed. In time these issues will be addressed. It's not something specific to reer awdal. All tribes are discriminated against in favour of some for positions due to nepotism and corruption.


To oppose Somaliland because of these issues is not only crazy it's to mind numbingly stupid. I don't like this minor problem therefore I'm going to join a state that can't even insure my children's are safe is not logic. These fake nationalists down can't even help themselves. They have been fighting about the same tribalist nonsense for 23 years. They will sell your children to Ethiopians. Miskeenkan. Has no clue.


Again more nonsense from this galbeedi character. Unbelievable nonsense. Like I said it makes sense. Why he says what he says because of his false assumptions. Based on tribalism.


Saxib we in south Hargaisa been waiting for many things we haven't received. So what. Our existence and safety and overall interests are more important then pettiness.

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I Forgot one thing one since when is ina cumar jees a Somalilander or reer woqoyi waba sheeko walaan waba ti oo soo indho cad cad wa halkai cabdi good eh. Galbeedi is right there is nepotism and favoritism in SL governments, but SL is a democracy and atleast we can change administrations the kacaan regime never allowed opposition to even question the authority only armed resistance was the solution, i Believe galbeedi is asking the wrong questions not why did you rebel , but what was the alternative, Also Galbeedis logic makes no sense he says awdal suffered under general siad bare but why not fight the regime if he was so bad or the regime was so bad, why do you question the people who fought him.

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Stop with the insults please Cidan


Galbeedi is making some very solid points here. The people of Awdal went through very harsh experiences in the period after 1991.


And Xaaji, SL wasn't the only "neglected" portion of Somalia. The land of Bari, Nugaal, Mudug, Galgudud, etc. They were also neglected. The land was a baadiyow and there was very little economic opportunities there. You're correct, but you're not telling the whole story Xaaji.


P.S. Welcome back Xaaji Xunjuf :D :D

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Tell us what the people of awdal went through since 1991? Please?


These people. Parallel universe walahi. Awdal was the partner that restored peace to Somaliland. It's elders the most staunch.


Tell us doctor Kennedy what the people of Awdal suffered since 1991 please. Bullet points?


Somaliland is not nugaaal, Somaliland is not bari Somaliland was a nation that united the fun!Ken Somali speaking people's and United the Somali Republic. It is not equalivilant to these regions of Somalia. The five pointed star doesn't include bari, nugaaal or khatumo.


Somaliland had the bulk of the Somali army on its territory. It was bombed by the air. The entire cities wiped out. Hundreds of thousands dead in mass graves. It was a government program to wipe out an entire people and land and replace it with other. They lost and suffer till this day for it


Kennedy what on earth are you talking about.

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Xaaji, welcome back. I knew these boys couldn't handle a mans job, so Xaaji is here to reuse. At least you pointed out the gulf and trade issues. Also the issue of the southern political power in the sixties could have been an under current issue that never goes away. The basic aspect of my argument was rather than hardship, you were seeking power, although the price paid for that was very high. We know Somali Nationalism is dead and it is replaced by tribal hegemony and history. Every thing that people used to hold dear mean nothing today.


Ahmed Guray, Sayid<ii Ina C/le Xasan, and those who fought for our collective freedom are replaced by Ahmed Siilaanyo, Aideed and C/laahi Yusuf.


WE swallowed a lot of pride and discarded a lot of history and tradition for peace and co-existence. So far other democracy in name only , we couldn't see any functioning system of government. The system is nurturing tribalism , corruption and nepotism. How long people have to wait for a modern government. In Somaliland WE could easily see two groups that divided every thing along tribal lines. Siilaanyo, and his company run the presidency, foreign aid, airports, and all things petroleum, while the other side runs the military, finances, foreign policy , industry, education and ports. What is left behind.


Do we have to beg this hungry " SNM Habro" for building small fishing ports and basic things, when tens of millions are pockets from donors in our name. We are tired of refereeing these squabbling Habros . For the last 18 months nothing has been done to advance or improve the system.


" Hambo dambe diyaar uma Nihin". you refused to be taxed by Siyaad Barre and want free economy. We want the same thing. I am not sure if the Somaliland system could be reformed any more. " Waa nidaam Ragaaday oon La Toosin Karin". I see a so called Sheikh Samaale, the Finance minister using the ministry as family cash cow. We have been speaking all these years with no avail. " Samir Haduu Wax Dili Lahaa , we have shown enough patience.


We Awdalites will be putting the Somali and Somaliland issues to their last coffin and we will nail them once for all. If things do not change, we will leave Somaliland and Somalia both and declare an independent " Awdal Emrite" that will trace it's old history.


So Xaaji, And our friend Ciidan Suldaan , Somaliland must reform immediately or we will be history.

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What's with this Ottawa community of Awdalites that's tirelessly working for the demise of Somaliland for 20 years now? Don't you guys ever give up the ghost? Is it the usual Somali clan-ego in the 'qurba-coffee shop' where the rival clan member insulted you to the point of no-return?


This current surfaced its head with the inauguration of Awdal University in the early 1999-2000 era but the university was slowly integrated into the Somaliland fabric over time. Recently we saw the drums beat for the Awdal-Land project with its absentee President(currently missing in action like so many diaspora projects before it).


Isn't the real problem with this dream the Awdalites on the ground in Somaliland who are far too vested in the Somaliland project to pull back now? Or is it the never-ending competition between Awdal sub-clans and prominent personalities that forever hobbles this dream?


Thus far, the people on the ground in Awdal have made their peace with the Somaliland reality and share the ups &downs of Somaliland. Are there clan grievances? Of course! But how is it any different from the sub-clan grievances of the Habros when another wing is holding power?

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