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A journey to my tribal homeland.

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It's fair to say parochial politics is well covered; however, it would be interesting to focus more on businessmen, traders and big companies's influence, hold on power.

It seems they are not only too close to decision makers but even calling the shoots with the near absence of taxation, which means terrible conditions for the masses unable to access water, healthcare or prevention services and the long term (urban planning and infrastructure).


Have those trading elites convinced others that adressing the lack of regulations and ultra low taxes are not real priorities?

Is it even possible to talk about the nationalisation of cash cows such as livestock exports, utilities or at the very least the Telecoms?

Do people realise that they are entitled to basic services and that taxation or public revenues increase is the only way to deliver it?

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Abu-Salman, you raised a good question. In Borama mostly I saw the agents of the big business, not the actual owners or the big corporate owners. Those you mostly do not interfere openly on the local politicians, although they try to please when the top leaders are in town. I will discuss further the all those you raised. as far as I know the Telecom do not pay any bandwidth spectrum like most countries. In Canada, the government auctions the spectrum every few years and charges Billions with "B". I had some encounters with the importers too. May be we should discuss further about trade and taxes.

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Hargeisa, the land of the free, unless you write news papers.


In Hargeisa, whether you resident, visitor or happen be to a Somali, in Hargeisa you will feel the freedom. There were no Al-shabaab threat of terrorism and bombing, there were no fear of the state security interfering your life, unless you involve in the media, and finally there were no threat of being kidnapped by ethiopian agents. Unlike what the internet extremists project, this place is as Somali as they come. This is the land of the Somalis. By nature freedom of expression is cherished very much. One of the biggest complaint people have is the state trying to muzzle the media. Talk and talk is part of the culture, and the government do not understand that simple formula." waar afka hana qaban, waxaasi waa waxaan ka soo dagaalanee" is one statements you hear. Almost every month some paper editor is arrested or his equipment confiscated. The ruling class is paranoid. The city has grown a lot. much bigger than what it was before the war. In fact " Naasahablood" mountain which was literally out of Hargeisa is now becoming a suburban of the city. One of my sisters live probably a kilometer or more from the mountain. Each district has it's own market. Business is good. Traffic jam is growing and thousand of cars fill the streets of Hargeisa. I will talk about life, liberty, trade and other aspects of Hargeisa, but first let us meet the political class ( from Awdal) in Hargeisa.


The political class.


First we had an audience with the vice president of Somaliland C/raxman C/laahi Zaylici. We had few exchanges about politics , economy and the general outlook of Somaliland. In my group we were people of different political stripes. Some were Somaliweyn adherents, others were Somaliland believers, while some were open minded about the whole issues. We asked him about the development issues, and he said " we do not want to promise things like the former regime , but if we say will do some thing we will do it" . He then went on to talk about the issue of Somaliland and the Awdal Diaspora. He said " if you ask the Mogadishu community(Hag), about Somalia, the first thing they will say is " caasimada Somalia waa Muqdisho, dawladuna halkaa waa in ay tagtaa, regardless of the safety situation; If you ask the "D" community about Somalia they will say " midnimada Soomaaliyeed waa Muqadas"; and finally if you talk to the " Duriyada" , they will say Somaliland waa Muqadas". Finally he looked at us and said " haddad tihiin Qurba Joogii reer Awdal waa in aad leedihiin meel biyo kama dhacaana." he was probably insinuating that we should make our our mind on the issues, but, the fact was, he was urging us to join the bandwagon of Somaliland and stick with it. as one of the Somali weyn guys present , I did not debate but listen. I had to be an honorable guest who should listen and learn. He knew some of the guys, and after the early serious talk, they started exchanging normal conversation.


As we talked and the atmosphere seem relaxed, I decided to ask that nagging question which was in my mind. Both in Hargeisa and Borama there were rumors about the health of the President Ahmed Siilaanyo. I said to him, " how is the health of the president?, is he have serious issue? and God forbid if things get worse, are you prepared to lead?". He felt uncomfortable by my inquiry , but firmly Said " Subxaana Allah, Ilaahay naguma keno, AlxamduLilaah, the president is doing very well and healthy. Some of you will say " waar kuwani ma geerida ayey sugayaan" , but it was a fair question. He encouraged us to come back and invest what ever resource or knowledge we have. I did not had the opportunity to meet President Siilaanyo, but one of my friends did . He said, his face didn't had any expressions and seem tired. The fact is, unless a certified medical doctor declares him healthy, this question will remain always. Also, the actions of his aides indicate there something missing. " waxba is qaban la"


Then we met some of the members of the Parliament from Awdal. They were as hard as anyone you can meet when it comes to the issue of Somaliland. For these guys, there is nothing other than Somaliland. They immediately started to criticize us by not contributing enough to the economic growth and investment in our region. One of them said " waar dhulka waxa min Burco ilaa Boorama Dhisanaya waa dadka ee maxaad hayado iyo waxuun u keeni laadihiin" another one said " G' reer awdal way Guuraane ma dhoofaan" . he said very few of us came back home after spending time in the diaspora. Another member, who is probably one of the youngest member of the Somaliland parliament, by the name Ahmed Yasiin Sheek Cali, boosted that " We are integral part of Somaliland, and kept talking about the usual " Somaliland anagaa Dhalay " and added, "we will decide who becomes the president , we can affect change and in the next election, we may even elect one or two guys in the Hargeisa city council". Finally, Some suggested that less than five percent of us comes back permanently. In contrast among the Duriyada, large number of the diaspora have completely settled back in Hargeisa and other places. Any way in terms of Somaliland, these guys were even talking about recognition and total separation. When I tried to raise with one of them about the youth unemployment, and the lack of government contribution in the region, he jumped and said " Adeer meeshan yar Hadii la aqoonsado, Abudabay baynu Noqon oo waynu dhargi , inagaa shaqo la inoo soo doonan". Well, I have to pass the Iqaamada uu bixin doono" . I assumed it was a Typical politician talking.


While these members of parliament from Awdal were hard liners on the issue of Somaliland, they will not be the major obstacle for Somaliland to unite with Somalia. First, the power of Somaliland is now concentrated in the hands of very few well connected people, second Ahmed Siilaanyo being astute politician and the last high profile politician both in Somaliland and Somalia, if he decides to embark the The UNITY issue, he knows that he will not be confronted by the Awdal members of parliament, but a vocal group who happen to be former SNM veterans. Do not worry about the sultans or tribal chiefs, they could be brought in a room, then, the government will explain the reasons it decided to make the move.


The SNM veterans are well respected in Somaliland especially among the " beesha dhexe" . In a recent encounter with Ahmed Samatar , Siilaanyo said " Taking a gun and waging war is much easier than running a government". Well, the SNM folks had bad experience running a government in Somaliland. Soon after the liberation, a quarrel which later became a civil war started immediately. There were accounts that even the first president (Ahn) C/raxman Tuur was stopped at gunpoint and forced to walk from his car. Having said that , Sheekh C/laahi told me that one of the biggest and most successful thing the movement did was by giving back the power and the decision to choose another government after their mandate of two years were finished. That was the opportunity to elect President Cigaal (Ahn) in Borama. Which probably made them different than the other movement like the USC.

yet they are still not ready to lead. If you watch the news in Hargeisa, you will not miss their rant by threatening people in the media. Even Cigaal fought a bloody war against them. Before Cigaal cleverly stabilized Somaliland, tribal militia were holding the airport until mid nineties. even Faisal Waraabe said, without Cigaal we would have warlords ruming the land. We all realize that Siilaanyo didn't spent all these years in the wilderness just to debate with SNM and rule between Hargeisa, Borama and Burco, while he could be The Somali tiger in the horn with big the stick. We will discuss Silaanyo in the next segment.,,,,


Siilaanyo knows in order to have any chance of peaceful integration of Somalia and Somaliland, he must eliminate the influence of the former members of the movement. Ahn, former president Cigaal eliminated almost the SNM from the power in the nineties. While they were part of his administration in his first term, he decided to neutralize them in order to move forward. To do this, he started from the top. Just before the Second Somaliland Conference, which elected Cigaal as a president for the second term, he called a couple Awdal elders and said, " Adeer ninkaan maad i dhaafisaan Lama Shaqayn Karayee, ood Nin kale Maad ii Keentaan". Cigaal was referring to his vice president, C/raxman Aw cali Faarah, one of the few SNM commanders who hails from Awdal. C/raxman Tolwaa, as he is called, gave Cigaal hard time by making decisions without the president while aligning himself with movement. Few weeks before the conference, the Borama elders came back and the President asked " Adeer yaad ii Wadaan ", they said " Mudane Madaxweyne, Caano madaadshe aan afka juuq ka odhan ayaan kuu Wadnaa". By that, they introduced the former Somali Intelligence service, Colonel Daahir Rayaale Kaahin. The rest is history. after that coup, Cigaal proceeded to enact his reforms and agendas after . Tough guy " jabhads", are always hard to deal. When Ahn, C/laahi Yusuf became president in 2004, he appointed prime Minister Cali Mohamed Geedi. Some of my Hag friends, kept complaining About about C/laahi Yusuf and how he was trying to take revenge from them and so on. I said, didn't one of your guy is the head of the government as a prime minister, why are you pretending like you guys are outsiders from the power?. He said " Xageed Ku Aragtay Nin Jabhad Ah iyo Nin Qalin Wata oo La isku daray? waar ninku qolka markay galeenba wuu bireeyey". They said " we need another Jabhad like him to deal with ."


Siilaanyo like Cigaal already sidelined most of them from positions of influence. They are less than 5% of the cabinet , but they are still load by forming pressure group and other councils. They have every right to pressure Siilaanyo in the management of the state but on the issue of Somali Unity they will not be reasonable. One of them Mohamed Hashi Cilmi, objected in 2005, when the world bank offered some development money while incorporating through Somalia or under Somalia name. He said people paid high price to be associated with that name. Also, civic elections expose how much power one is holding or pretending to command. Many of these guys couldn't win direct elections among the public. Faisal and the opposition are reasonable people. Faysal Waraabe want honest discussion on the issue of Somalia and he will be reasonable. The move is already started. A third of the cabinet is now from the former old guard of the UDUB party. They may be corrupt but they are pragmatic and can get along with the leader.

among those sidelined are :


!- Mohamed Hashi

2-C/raxman aw cali

3- Dhagaweyne

4-Hassan Ciise Jamac

5-hassan guure

6-Cali guray

7-Mohamed Gaboose

8-Boobe yusuf Duale

9-C/raxman C/qadir

10-Mr. Dixood

12-general Tanni

and other law level directors.

At the same time there are few who do not hold offices , but are party members.


1- Muuse Biixi

2-Mohamed Kahin

3-Jaamac Shabeel


These are nominally leaders of Kulmiye party. They will be eliminated in due course, after Siilaanyo wins the next election. If the opposition do not come together and form one single front , he could win it easily. To understand the future, you must learn the past. On that note, we have to talk about the the big elephant in the room, Mr. Ahmed Siilaanyo.


Ahmed Siilaanyo, next...... since most of you voted to continue both the past and present we will do just that..



















(((((While these members of parliament from Awdal were hard liners on the issue of Somaliland, they will not be the major obstacle for Somaliland to unite with Somalia. First, the power of Somaliland is now concentrated in the hands of very few well connected people, second Ahmed Siilaanyo being astute politician and the last high profile politician both in Somaliland and Somalia, if he decides to embark the The UNITY issue, he knows that he will not be confronted by the Awdal members of parliament, but a vocal group who happen to be former SNM veterans. Do not worry about the sultans or tribal chiefs, they could be brought in a room, then, the government will explain the reasons it decided to make the move.)))))





In no way is this discussion among the populace, maybe among your friends.It's these kind stuff you turning into reality I have problem with.I call it wishful thinking.

The otha thing is every piece you write is always included Riyaale,Borama,Awdal(can't remember without them in every single post last couple months since started engaging with you) and present as some heavy weight that everything revolves around.Just think it come across bad on you as thou you have attention deficiency syndrome or proving to world you exist.






((((((even Faisal Waraabe said, .We all realize that Siilaanyo didn't spent all these years in the wilderness just to debate with SNM and rule between Hargeisa, Borama and Burco, while he could be The Somali tiger in the horn with big the stick. )))))



Would like prove for the record.

not that important what faisal said as this a movement by the people if you can recall how it came about in Burao in 1991, but again it shows you putting too much emphasis on triviality because you too desperate to jump into your somaliweyn bandwagon.the way you analyzing history has full of inaccuracies or and exaggeration pressed by the desire to be that way.

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Burahadheer what Galbeedi also misses was the days of the SNM are gone the SNM came in and destroyed the regime and gave the decision to the people. what do you want and the people said anagu xamar dooni meyno. What ever intention SNM had to rule the entire Somali republic (Somaliland and Somalia) was killed when SL declared independence, this ambition died, SL declared independence and the Koonfurians are colonized by AU troops. Somalilanders feel that the union did them wrong , and that Mogadishu was never a credible partner for the union, they had a vision for the union , but the koonfurians made it impossible. The youth want jobs i agree with galbeedi and would do everything to pursue their interest , but being second to koonfurians is for them to no go , they will not make the same mistake their grandfathers made.

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Mr XX, Galbeedi knows the truth but exercising his right to live off where eva he wishes, only that purposely putting in a devious, inaccurate way to pave the way for his desire....somaliweyn!

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Which one is Siilaanyo>


The president of Somaliland Ahmed Siilaanyo, is a man of different league, who both represent the future of Somaliland in the short term, and maybe even have a big hand on the future of Somalia. Siilaanyo is not Rayaale, C/raxman Tuur or Even Hassan Sheekh. He had big visible traces on what went wrong in Somalia. He has been in the political scene since 1969. History will judge him harshly if he becomes indifferent for the problems and the suffering of the Somali people in the horn. We all know the president of the United Somalia will be different than all these overseers that we have witnessed for the last 20 years. He will lead the aspirations pf the 2o million Somalis who reside the horn of Africa. it will not be business as usual, the leader of the united Somalia will be carrying a big stick and people will pay attention. I cringe when I see this dad's boy Uhura( my dad is Kenyatta) who happen to be president because his father was president. He incited violence in the election of 2008 to win sectarian votes. He was weak, but now he is cutting his teeth through the so called war on Al-shabaab. Soon he could be convicted for crimes against humanity in his role for inciting violence.


Any way to figure out Ahmed Siilaanyo, I have to go back many decades. We have to analyze his contemporary political rivals and companions. What have the men of his era accomplished ?, or what kind of impact did they had for the average Somalis for the last 54 years. While there are a lot of men with extensive impacts on Somalia, both negative and positive, I will focus the few influential ones. I would like to divide in three categories. The first group, I call them Democrats or legal builders. THe second group is Despots or dicatators, and finally the last group will be the Opportunists.


The law abiding democrats.


1- C/laahi Ciise Mohamud

2- Aadan cabdulle osman

3- C/rashiid ali Sharmaarke

4- C/risaaq Xaaji Husein

5- Mohamed Xaaji. I. Cigaal


The depots ( dictators).


General Mohamed Siyaad Barre

General Mohamed Faarah Caydiid

Colonel C/laahi yuusuf Ahmed.

Colonel Hassan Dahir aweys.


The opportunists


C/qaasim Salaad Hassan

Cali Khaliif Galaydh

Ahmed Mohamed Siilaanyo

Hassan Sheekh Mohamuud.


Some of you are already wondering what can of criteria was the list based or some other questions, but since I am writing this thing, I have my own reasons for each one of these men. I believe these men had a profound impacts about the conditions the Somali people are in today. Some contributed for the building of the great society, while others destroyed. Some were the catalyst for change while others were bystanders.


We start with the law abiding democrats. This group came to the power through the constitutional way and through the legal system established by the law of the land. They were pioneers of Somali independence and the formation of the nation state. They have been chosen by the people to lead the Republic. in fact each one of them was directly elected by the people.


C/laahi Ciise Mohamuud: Ahn, He was the first prime minister of the provisional government under the Italian trusteeship fro 1956-1960. I am not going to indulge any history here, other than to state their main achievements. As a very young age he participated in the SYL and became one of the leaders. He went to Paris, New York and other foreign capitals for the cause of Somali independence. He was a man who cared more about his people and country than power and privilege. Almost everybody who headed a provisional government or led the movement before independence became president. Look every where, Kenya, South africa, Aljeria, Ganna. Unfortunately C/laahi Ciise prefered the independence of the nation, rather than position himself in a position of the leader. Easily he could have been the the future President. Some say that by aligning himself with Mohamed X. Ciagaal to form the perfect union cost him his allies and lost the presidency. Regardless, he was loyal to the leaders of that government. also by allowing smooth transition, he paved the way for the new team to lead the country. . In the history he goes as one of those who positively contributed for the Republic. He was on of the founding fathers of the republic of Somalia.


Aadan Cabdulle Cismaan: Ahn, Aadan cadde, was a symbol of unity and good leadership and responsible government. Somalis everywhere are well aware of his decency and honesty, He was the personification of what people expected their leaders. He was the First in africa to peacefully transfer power without blood. In 1967, he lost by one vote and walked away. Unlike today's leaders he did not bought a house from London or Dubai, but retired in his farm. He represents what people call " beri samaatkii". He was one of the founders.


C/rashiid ali Sharmaarke" ahn, Sharmaarke was a decent and honorable man. There were a lot of talk about corruption and other issues during his term when Cigaal was prime minister, but it was the political maneuvering of that political era. In democracies, progress usually is slow but incremental. In dictatorship, there is big hype and let down " Xumbo kor u Kacda oo Hadana Degta'. Unlike today's presidents he was hands off president. In that era Ciagaal was the prime minister running the show. His famous speech in 1964, which he proclaimed " gacana waan ku dagaalamaynaa, midna waan ku Footaynaynaa" refering the war of 1964. Their second government in 1969, when brought before the parliament for vote of confidence, they got 97% of the vote.

They could have dominated the Somali political landscape if the assassins bullet didn't taken away from the Somali people. C/rashiid was a God fearing leader and one of the founders of the nation.


Mohamed Xaaji I Cigaal. Ahn, Cigaal was the only real consummate politician the Somaliland region ever produced. Others are pretenders. After the Union of July 1960, he was out maneuvered by the southern politicians whom were practising politics since 1956. As the head of the Somaliland delegation, he did not get the appropriate allocation of the power. Yet that didn't stop him from achieving his goals. When he realized that he couldn't defeat the political machine of SYL he joined them. He was also one the most generous Somalis in political office. He famously said " waar siyaasada guri lagama dhistee guryahaagaa la geliyaa". Some may not know, but before Cigaal, there were warlords in every corner of Somaliland. Not only he pacified , but he reformed the system and introduced the party system at the right time. His plan was to spread the peace across the Somali people before his death. In fact , it could be said , Cigaal was one of the last Somalis of his generations who were the founding fathers of the Somali republic.



A/risaaq Xaaji Husein: Ahn, c.riassq was one one of the most hard working politicians of his era. His time known as " karti iyo hufnaan" . He even fired his own brother during the government lay off. During his term he reformed the system and introduced big reforms. Although he made a lot of noise after he lost out with his SYL friend, he remains one of the great prime ministers of his era. Throughout the years he remained a a staunch supporter of free independent Somalia and he passed away just few months ago as the last somali statesman standin. A/risaaq was both respected and admired by Somalis until his last days.


These men may have stumbled or made some mistakes in their political life but they left a legacy of nation building and harmony. In their era no Somali blood was spilled and there were harmony among the people.


They say no news is good news, so we will leave behind the history of these men. Now let us move to the Dictators.


The Somali dictators have something in common.


1- Most of them, if not all of them came from the central regions of Somalia where life is tough and harsh. Siyaad Barre may have come from Gedo, but his original home is Galgaduud.

2- They all joined the army as a young age to gain employment. They may claim to have spent time in Italy or Russia, or some other places, but most of them did not go through the legal channels to get an education, like going middle school, high school and then gain the necessary qualifications to be an elite officer.

3- They all had an ambition to be a dictator as earlier than many people think.

4- They all spilled the blood of tens of thousands of Somalia to gain the power.

5- They never achieved their ultimate goal to be a great dictator, and the ones who achieved , left behind a trail of destruction.

6- They had no desire to go through the legal channels.


The dictator, always tries to be bigger than the life it self. When Qadaafi was challenging Ronald Reagan in the nineteen eighties, he had a population of around four million people. Almost half of that were migrant workers from Africa and the arab world, yet he wanted to leave mark around the globe. South korea, have $250 billion dollars in trust fund, it is probably the 12th economy in the world, yet they are normal people, same with Norway or others who are rich and prosperous. Indonesia, the most populous Muslim nation is doing fine, but you don't hear them pump their chest. Now , look some of these petrodollar arab states, who may have some reserve from the oil, they want boast around and make noise while they are insignificant in the eyes of the world. These Somali dictators from central Somalia are typical of Chauvinistic arab we see every day.


Just few years before the military dictatorship took over the country, the late Somali playwright and composer Hassan Sheekh Muumin, produced the play called Leopard among women ( shabeel Naagood). By prophesying what may come he said:


Dalaalnimada diintiyo, Dastuurka iyo xeerka

hadii dabool la Saaro, Dawo Bukootay weeye.


He says if you cover up or deny the rule of law, constitution and the religion and faith, the medicine who suppose to cure will be sick by it self. In a sense the social order will collapse. Well, the dictators came and nothing have been normal since then.


Mohamamed syaad barre: ahn, Siayaad barre like most dictators left a legacy of destruction and mayhem behind him. He did have contributed a lot of things in early years of the revolution to advance the cause of nation building. Under his leadership, the Somali language was written, THe military became one of biggest in Africa and he transformed the art and culture of the country. The problem with the dictators is that, the destruction they leave behind overshadows any achievement they have accomplished in their life time. Like I mentioned, Siyaad started his intention to size power early.


In 1962, a junior officer by the name of Husein Cali Ducaale, narrated in one of his books when he met Syaad baree in his office. At that time Cawil and other junior officers from Somaliland were on trial for orchestrating the first ever coup staged in Somalia in 1961. These northern officers were not happy the way the military ranking and other powers within the military were divided between the south and north. Cawil, like most of his fellow officers from the north was a graduate of Sandhurst military college in England. This is one of the most prestigious military colleges in the world. it is were Prince William of Britain graduated few years ago. when he came back in 1960 he was a lieutenant. All of them finished school and joined the elite Somaliland corps and then sent to appropriate military schools. These men, after the union, joined the Somali National army. They couldn't believe that most of these southern officers were colonels, captains and majors, while not having any correspondent education. So when you see today 200 generals in Mogadishu, half of them nominated for the last few years do not be surprised . It is a tradition.


Any way, those junior officers were arrested and taken to court. Since the Somalia of 1962 was civilized, they accessed the legal process and finally convicted. Rather than treat harshly these disgruntled officers, the Somali government, dishonorably Discharged them from the army. Then, the Somalia of Aadan Cadde and Sharmaarke, was a confident one. It wasn't worried about losing power, nor looking weak by letting these young officers free. Compare that to the Somalia of 1982, just twenty years after that incident. In 1982, in Hargeisa a group of young men who were mostly doctors, nurses and Hospital workers organized a civic organization to improve service. They called it UFO. They were arrested and accused of anti government activity and undermining of public order. One bureaucrat, that served in Hargeisa in that time told me that every effort has been taken by the Sultans, business people and others to reduce tension and let go these young men. He said " the governor, who was an Cadmaawi from Sool community, did request every government minister who comes in Hargeisa to resolve the issue. As most dictators are paranoid and only listen to those who want to make things worse, things went from bad to disaster. They took them to Mogadishi and sentenced them to death. Few years After they commuted the sentence to life imprison. As you can see that is the actions of a depot who is paranoid.


as Cawil was complaining to Siyaad barre about his dismissal from the army, Siyaad said " did you see the guy sitting in that room? , Cawil Said yes. That is the man who has my grade and rank, Siyaad said. He was referring to general dauud C/dule hirsi. He want on and added " Ninka raggi ma calaacalee wuu aargoostaa". This conversation definitely shows Siyaad had resented the Commander in chief of the army. When the military coup came in October 21, 1969, Siyaad was the highest ranking officer and the Commander of the army. If there is an army takeover of the country, he should know that he will be always the top man by military rule. Yet as most dictators, he was paranoid and immediately moved against his colleagues. He arrested Major general Said M. Qorshel , the head of the police and a year later executed the most prominent men of the Somali army and police. By eliminating Mohamed Caynaanshe, Abdulqadir Dheel and Salaad gabyre, he removed any high ranking officer to stop him or reason with him. He could have put them in jail or exile them, but he decided to go for the blood.


Then in 1975, rather than punish them by putting them in jail or warning them, he arrested and publicly executed 10 religious imams who challenged the merits of the state socialism on family issues. Most observers will tell you that was the beginning of the decline of both the moral foundation and the leadership of the military. I am not going to spent that much ink about other calamities and the destructions left behind by Siad Barre, or the things his government accomplished. this are footnotes on The purpose of my this writing. Like most dictators whatever they build is overshadowed by their crimes.


Meel baan u socdaaye , just stick around.



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Reckless and ruthless.


As I mention in my introduction Ahn, Mohamed faarah Cayddiid started early in his desire to gain power through illegal means. While President Aadan Cadde was touring the Jubba region, a group of soldiers put a check point on the road and stopped the vehicle of the president. When the president inquired what was going on, he was introduced to a junior officer by the name of Aideed who had some grievances. That was 1961. He started the " Sparo" long time ago. In 1969, before the assassination of the president C/rashiid, a group of officers were been suspected of plotting coup. Among those was Caydiid, C/laahi yusuf, Mohamed I. LiiqLIiqato, Salaad gabeyre and others. After the military take over both c/laahi yusuf and Caydiid were arrested and kept in jail. Caydiid was also reckless in his efforts to defeat his opponents, sometimes even participating battles directly. C/laahi yusuf in his book " Halgan iyo Hagardaamo" said that during their incarceration, Caydiid became mentally unstable. The fact is looking their actions both of them were psychologically damaged. They were both released before the war of 1976. While C/laahi got the opportunity to go to war and organize for his own coup, Caydiid never had that opportunity. Few years when I was talking one of Caydiid's relatives, he said Caydiid was lamenting for not going to the front and participating the war. I asked " does he want to be a hero or gain some military ranks ?. He said " no, he wanted the opportunity to go the field and recruit officers in order to launch his own coup". He was left inside the country to support the war effort from inside. The fact is, Caydiid, in the seventies did not have the connections or the political infrastructure to wage a successful coup. For him and C/laahi every job and task was an end to something sinister. While they have known each other since fifties, they never done anything meaningful together. When C/laahi launched his coup , Caydiid wasn't aware or did not participate. Also when Caydiid became the most influential man in mogadishu in the early nineties and forming his " Salbalaadh" government, C/laahi came to him and asked to be number two guy. Caydiid said " maandhow booskaas reer woqooyi baa iska leh". As you can see they may have come from the same city of Gallkacayo, but never build things together.


When Caydiid saw an opportunity to gain the power in the late eighties he jumped on it by joining the USC. Although he was the guy who led the movement to battle the government , like C/laahi before him he wasn't those who founded the USC. He only joined when he saw the opportunity to win. Rather than to go through a coup , he saw the opportunity to take all by the barrel of gun. I have no intention to criticise Caydiid or C/laahi for trying to make a coup, since Siyaad Barre himself gained the power through the gun. He led the forces that overthrew Siyaad from the power in Mogadishu. The collapse of the state in 1991 did not help bring Caydiid to power. A coalition of insiders called Manifesto single handedly decided who should be the president. after Cali Mahdi became president and Omar Carte the Prime minister, the chances of Caydiid taking the power diminished. Although he was isolated and desperate, Caydiid some how got break from unexpected quarters. While Siyaad and his supporters vacated the Villa Somalia, a coalition of " SAHAL" troops organized an offensive to take back Mogadishu. They even came close to Afgooye. Cali Mahdi being a weak businessman who does not have the capacity to push back the coalition that is pushing to power, eventually asked Caydiid to help defend the government. Caydiid could not believe the reversal of fortunes. He chased the coalition and Siyaad barely escaped in the Kenyan border. BY defeating Siyaad and company he convinced to himself to take the power by force. The war between him Ali Mahdi became the biggest obstacle for the return of Somali state. To make the story short the man who captured between Gaalkacayo and Kismaayo a hungry militia, was shot dead by one the young militia members he used to command. With that the ambition to be a dictator which started in 1961 perished. People say Caydiid was one of the toughest and most ruthless dictators of his life time. Since he showed up in the political scene, he did not leave behind any thing useful other than death and destruction.


Mar uun Madaxweyne I dhaha.


Ahn, C/laahi Yuusuf like his friend from Gaalkacayo Caydiid, had an ambition to be a dictator. In his book he said he refused to participate the coup planed by Siad Barre. In one exchange , when he was asked about his plans, he said " waar kayga uun ha eegina kan Siyaad Barre wado eega". their were reports that he warned President C/rashiid about the plots from Siyaad Barre. The fact is C/laahi yusuf was a witness to the first ever Somali coup staged by Somali military officials. In 1961, young northern officers, led by Hassan Kayd and C/laahi kongo took over both The Hargeisa and Burco military barracks and declared their take over. C/laahi Yusuf as commander of the Burco battalion was detained easily by the plotters. By first hand, he saw how these guys were successful without firing a shot. That coup inspired him early. Like Caydiid he was released in 1976. Some people would say the coup of 1978 was the result of the military defeat of the Somali army by the Russians and Ethiopians in 1977. The fact is the plot were prepared long time ago. C/laahi admitted in his book that when he was appointed the manager of Fiat ( wagad), he stole more than $300,000 dollars to use for the coming coup. While the SSDF was effective and organized in the early years some say when C/laahi took over it lost it;s Somaliweyn character and became a subclan movement. The fact is clan organization was the only effective way for Somali movements to gain strength. I will leave to historians all the tribulations and success of the movement.


C/laahi was arrested by the Mengistu government in 1985. His supporters say he was arrested because he protested Ethiopian action in Balanbale by erecting Ethiopian flag after they together captured the town. I do not bielieve that story. THe Balanbale war was 1982/83, but he was arrested in 1985. I believe their were three main reason that forced the Ethiopians to arrest somebody who was there more than six years. First in 1984, there were clandestine negotiations between Siayaad Barre and the Puntloand community to resolve the issue since a more radical and determined movement joined the campaign to topple Siyaad Barre. The SNM in later years refused to be part of SSDF or any other group, they decided to wage their war single handedly. THe Mengistu government Got very close to the SNM. Any way these negotiations organized by the Italian government came to agreement in 1985. It was agreed that the Italian government will finance major development projects in Puntald and facilitate all contacts. It was agreed that the Italian aid agency will open office in Mogadishu to manage the funds and A man by the name C/risaaq Juriile was put in charge of the " fondo auto Italiano". They agreed all those who leave the movement will be helped with finance and government jobs. In exchange they must renounce their movement and accept the clemency of the government hundreds came after amnesty was granted. This action actually wasn't the most important want that caused the arrest, but it was one of them. Second A/laahi Yusuf assassinated one of the most important idealog of socialism in the horn of Africa. C/raxman Caydiid Ahn, left Somalia in 1977 and accused Siyaad barre for being anti communist for abandoning Socialism. He did not left for tribal reasons or abusive from regime, for him Siyaad wasn't communist. He was the man who who propagated the " scientific socialism". In his book C/laahi says he did not know who killed Caydiid, but one of the man who was wounded in the attack Abdi Muxumed said so clearly in a London court many years latter, and also when it did happen. The third catalyst for his arrest was that a lot of money was coming from Libiya at the time, and he used that money to buy the Ethiopian secret agents to do dirty jobs for him including assassination. That action put a lot of fear even among Ethiopian top officials. Those actions were the main reason he was arrested.


Although C/laahi tried to reform later years and repent to his past action both on his association with Ethiopia and tribal languages , he was known as one of those who tried to size the power and went a long road to gain it. He claimed that he was helping the cause of Puntlanders in particular and Somalis in general , but his actions brought only death, destruction, and millions of refugees. When he became president in 2004, he said he started this journey 35 years ago.Although he was called Mr.President he never achieved other than blood and tears.


Dalaalnimada Diinta Hadii Dabool La Saaro.


Aweys, Kitaab dhiig leh.


Most of you are only heard Hassan Daahir Awys since the Islamic Courts apeared on the scene. The truth is he has been involved almost all the major conflicts that engulfed the country since 1991. He participated almost in five major conflicts and he lost all of them. as a man reads the Qur'aan he should now that " qof Muslim ah laba jeer meel lagama wada qaniino". Aweys is more dangerous than most of the Dicators that I mensiomed above. While others use coups or insurgency to gain the power, he used the religion which is something Somalis hold dear. Unlike others who have met their lord, he is still with us.


In 1991, when a tribal war turned religious one Aweys went to Kismaayo to go between Caydiid and the group fighting him. Rather than bring peace that was one of the bloodiest ones he witnessed early in his career.

Soon after in 1992, he took over Boosaaso and detained most of the leadeship of the region in a battle for . Among those he detained were C/laahi Yusuf, Mohamed Abshir Hamaan and others. After long standoff he finally released. His comrdes also fought battles around Garoowe. When this things were their war battles of survival among the Somali communities. Caydiid was fighing with Punlanders of Gaalkcayo and other tribal wars were raging in the region. The people of Puntland were so upset, by the fact that while they defending bthemselves a religoius man comes from Galgaduud and forcing them his agenda. Most of the fighters in Gaeroowe are werelocal followers of Aweys and his group, but the were all killed. That was one of the second major war instigated by Aweys. During the siege of Boosaaso he said he was waging Jihaad against the local people. Ten years after in 2002, when the war on terrorism waged by Bush after September 11, C/laahi Yussuf siad " Bush Dagaalka Argagixisada haduu billabay laakiin anigu tobam sano ka har ayaan dagaal kula jiray". In fact it was C/laahi Yusuf who defeatedhim in Boosaaso after he freed the detainees.


Since this guy never lears his lessons, his misadventure continues. In 1997, Aweys and his group took over the Gedo region. They proclaimed the Shareeco and dominated the local mpeople. THe Gedo politicians and other pretenders were not happy an all knowing extremists pretending to be holy men are denying their right to rapresent their region in the Somali political scene. They tried to confront them, but subdued both by force and by calling them the enemies of the Shareecada. I remember in Canada a man by the name of AAden Mohamuud Ciise, who was the spokesman of Aweys and his group saying that " I just came back from Gedo, the women are all hijaab wearing, there is no Khat or cigarete, this is the land of the Shareeco". THis exactly what Al-shabaab says today that nothing is stolen all evertyone is save and so on. THe gedo politicians led by the former Minister of Defence of Somalia Cumar xaaji massala, appealed to Ethiopia to lift these extremists from their home land. It was the first time since the colapse of the Somali state an ethiopian army crossed the border and occupied a Soamli town. his men were defeated and on the process the Ethiopians destroyed luuq and Baardheere. This action was the first time Aweyses action brought the enemy to the soil.


In 1999, a young sheekh from Gedo recounted the truce reached between his group and the SNF in order to force the Ethioipian army to leave. He said, after we agreed to expel the Aweys gruop, the Ethiopians left the border. tHen the following days they called us to sign some papers. He said. " we rode couple of pickup trucks and we left Dollow late afternoon, after a long ride , in the late evening we reached the Ethiopian camp". " a solder led us to a tent were an officer was sitting, in that tent the former defence minister of Somalia was sitting across a lieutenant of the ethiopian Battalion. After being humiliated we sign the papers and left.".


Actually, that was the first time I heard about a group called Al-qaeda. Then I did not understand for what they stood for, but I recall that he was telling me that they were fighters who does not cat=re about collateral damage like the civilians.


To make the story short, let us get deep to the biggest shaw down Aweys was looking for all his life. For the fourth time Aweys battled Mogadishu warlords in order to rest the city from their hands. While the Mogadishu warlords were making threatening and tribal massages to prevent the government to relocate from jawhar to Mogadishu, C/laahi Yusuf was asked about what is going to happen and the situation in Mogadishu. He said" Hogaamiye Kooxyada iyo ganacsatada koox kale oo ka xoog badan ayaa jirta". " rag waa is Yaqaanaaye" he was referring Aweys in the courts who were dispensing justice in most of the Mogadishu districts.


When the Islamic courts took over the city it was a big news. The first time in 15 years a group of Somalis have successfully pacified the nations capital and law and order is coming back. While the courts have the man power and the logistical capacity to keep the peace, The Transitional Federal Government had the legitimacy and was recognized by the world. Those who have the interest of the Somali people thought that the best way to move forward is to bring these two together. The Islamic court's spokesman was a young charismatic moderate sheekh by the cname of Shariif Ahmed. Immediately he became the rising star of the movement. Although many of us disrespected and didn't give Shariif any credit during the turbulent years when he was the president he has shown to be a natural born leader. Unlike many , he was a self confident President. Just look his administration. HIs chief of staff was from Galdogob, his spokesman was from Sool, his army chief was Dhagabadan from Mudug, his intelligence chief was from Baidoa. Any way , through him the courts looked legitimate organization.


As most dictators Aweys saw the power of Shariif Ahmed and immediately made his move . In order to position himself for power, he made two important moves. First, to sideline Shariif and bring the decision making under his command, he created a parliament or what he called "shuura". While the Qur'aan talkes about Shuura and conseltaion, here the intension to use the term was purely for his own advantage. Among those who he nominated in Shuura were, Sheekh Cali dheere, the current Al-shabaab spokesman, Hassan Turki from Jubba and the last but not the least our freind Ahmed Modoobe of Jubba. BY the way he became the chairman of the Shuura.


The second move he made was in order to control the power to make war, he put his man to be in charge of the militia and fighters of the courts. He made Mohamuud Siyaad Indhacade the defence chief of the courts army. Still having regular army which Amir Shariif had a say wasn't enogh. He went furthrer and created a small radical group who were loyal to him and made his young leutenant Ahmed Hashi Cayrow to be in chaege of THe Al-shabaab wing of the army. By making bthese moves he toataly sidelinedc Amiir Shariif Ahmed. most people have found out the differnce within the courts when Indhacade declared war on Ethiopia while Sheelh Shariif was nogosiatiting with C/laahi Yusuf. The fact is there were already ideological war among them . Aweys, Cayrow and others were Saudi inspired Wahaabis, while sheekh Shariif was a shafici Alla-sheekh ( a moderate school). Few people heard, but their was a big confrontation among them in the early days of courtes. As the story goes, one night, a group of young Al-shabaa fighters among them Cayrow, Godane and Fuad Shoongale, came to Shariif and took him to undisclosed location. They put a gun in his head and told him " ama toobad keen ama Ashaahdo". They were opposed his peace offers and other consections he was trying to make in order to avoid war. When Shariif jumped ship in Asmara , a lot of people accused him of abandoning his comrades, but Shariif was helpless in the presence of Aweys.


Finally Aweys had his way and the war came. THe Ethiopians destroyed Mogadishu and the courts exiled to Asmara, Eritrea. Shariif finally saw the light and decided to make the peace that slipped away after the death of tens of thousands. After the truce which made Shariif the President , Aweys waged his war with his Al-shbaab , but was defeated again and he went to the bush.


Finally, the same group that he nurtured tried to eliminate him and for the sixth time he came back. This time he surrendered. This ametour government rather than make some kind of accident and remove him from the scene, they brought him home. In the science of politics , the government is something with two heads. One is benevolent for caring, curing, educating and nurturing, the other side is a beast which should make tough decisions like punishing the criminal, executing the murderer and so on. Hassan Aweys , is not finished yet. Earlier this year, when former governor Tarzan, in a meeting of Benadir district leaders said that " wadaadkii iasgoo ordaya ayuu soo daf soo yidhi" , there were jeers and boos from the sympathizers in the crowd who should know better. He may be dyeing his bear with red Hinna and enjoying himself, but he is not done.


the fact is these religious dictator caused the death, suffering and of Somali people for long time. Sometimes people say that if the military did not take over in 1969, things may have been better. It could be true, as the same time looking these characters , a coup of some kind would have been inevitable.



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A/qaasim was a follower not a leader.


This group of guys are different from the both the founding fathers and the dictators. They do not have the greatness, the history or honours of these statesmen, nor they have the ruthlessness of the dictators. but they had few things in common. First they are all educated men. Ali Khaliif has a PHD in government and public administration. In fact he was one of the first Somalis who gained that distinction. Ahmed Siilaanyo has Masters degree in business and economy. C/qaasim has enough education. Although they call him Dr. C/qaasim, he is neither a medical doctor nor a holder of doctorate, but it is one of those bogus titles southerners always like to be addressed. Hassan Sheekh is the most educated president of Somalia since 1960, he has a Masters degree in technical education. I do not know what that means but, again it is a southern thing. Any way he is a well educated man.


Some are wondering what Ali khaliif is doing there. Well Ali and Siilaanyo are inseparable. Together, they share some the events that shaped the trajectory the nations leaders have taken. We shall come on that part, but first the Carta president. This group works and the water. It is difficult for the naked eye to see their plots. That is why I will be spending a lot of ink to expose their machinations. Looks like someone is prempting me on my stories, I have prepared some insights between Siilaanyo and Ali khaliif, I will try to write as soon as possible before these events proceed my stories.


Follower not a leader.


A/qaasim Salaad Hassan, started from the top like most of his friends from that era. As soon as he came back from Russia. . As we noted in the previous articles we are not looking the biography of these men but the impacts they had on the journey of the nation. Since these articles are of the cuf bios, we will start from when he joined the cabinet. Legend says, that C/qasim's dad was killed by a man who shred subclan With Siyaad Barre, since then He never missed the cut to make the cabinet. IHe was the last Interior Minister of Siyaad barre responsible for so many issues regarding security. Yet when Somalis convened in Carta, Djibouti to select a transitional national government , he was one of the main candidates . Although he went to Carta early, the idea to convene a somali conference of reconciliation and restoration of the state wasn't his idea.


A man by the name of Mohamed Abshir Haamaan, went to Hargeisa in 1999 to meet Then President Cigaal. Abshirt and Cigaal were some of the longest prisoners of Siyaad barre after the revolution. They were in Jail from 1969- 1979. When Siyaad made rapprochement with west and particularly the Americans, they pressured him to release these the two men. In 1999 Cigaal visited the United States as the president of Somaliland. He met some congressmen and officials from the sate department . I was in The States at the time, and read in one of the articles in which Cigaal complaint the Ignorance of the American congressmen by mixing Somalia and Somaliland. He said" I am trying to explain our history and government , but they think I was talking about Somalia. The problem is for an American congressman fro Georgia or Nebraska, the only reason they probably heard about Somalia is through Black hawk Down or other claminities. Finally Cigaal met Susan Rice, then undersecretary of African affairs. while Cigaal was in Washington a Puntlander who was friend of mine shawed me an article from the noted bi-weekly, newsmagazine "The Economist". In the paper their was a map of Somalia., inside you see the separate map of Somaliland. In that map there was a huge junk of Somaliland , almost a their of the land marked with colors and written "disputed land". In the ensuing debate the lady told him Cigaal to resolve these issue, and keep the stability of the area under you control. Some other people told me that the meeting was unsuccessful. The Puntlander who was at the time promoting the one year old Puntland administration founded in 1998, said that Ms. rice showed Cigaal that map, and jokingly added hawshan anagaa ka soo shaqaynay". Any way Cigaal organized a referendum in 1999, in Somaliland and the Sool region did not participate.


In the light of these events, Cigaal visited Nairobi. While their he met The former members of the Somali regime and other during the civilian rule in Nairobi, now refugees waiting for miracle. Cigaal was saddened by the condition and the state of the Sonali affairs. There were a lot of discussions and almost all of them urged him to do something. Some reports said Cigaal being a very generous, gave around Fifty thousand dollars for Shaxaad among his old friends. Although there were a lot noises in Hargeisa about people saying " in uu na afduubuu rabaa", cigaal wanted to to hold a national reconciliation conference in Hargeisa. As soon aS Geele and the opportunists heard these rumors, they went in full gear to hijack the proposed plan.


Geele who was a member of the vice police of Djibouti ( I will not say more than that since SOL is a family site), took over from his Uncle Hassan Guuleed in 1998. Immediately after his uncle become the president of Djibouti in 1977, Geele , first became the body guard of the president, then , the security chief. By 1991, he became the chief cabinet of the government. THis is the same title Hirsi Ali Hassan of Somaliland holds today. He was't part of the cabinet , but was running the country from the Palace. If you hear "wasiirka Madaxtooyada", it is the chief of staff of the president masquerading both as a minister and palace insider. only the feudal systems do. YOu guys probably remember Farah Abdulqadir who was the campaign chairman of Qoslaaye turned Wasiirka madaxtooyada. Mohamed abshir agreed with Cigaal that as soon as Parliament is selected, they may even bring to Hargeisa to reciprocate the action the northerners did in 1960. While Abshir and others are working to bring north and south, the opportunists embarked to implement their agenda.


Some of the major mistakes Carta did was huge. First , rather than incorporate the regional governments that have achieved some kind of government and stability, they decided to invite the clans directly. In Somaliland, you had a functioning government and a senior Somali politician. Geele called the hargeisa and Borama elders directly and ignored Cigaal, who was in the politics before he was even started walking. He also ignored Puntland who had established a government. Instead of minimizing the fragmentation they encouraged it.


A group of southerners, led by Abdiqasim, C/raxman Baadiyow , hassan Abshir, Mohamed A. Yusuf and Cali khaliif with guidance of Geele implimented a new Tribal system called 4.5. I remember listening from the news a delegation from Muqdisho, among them Cali kinmiko saying, that Somalia is entering a new territory, which will add fuel to the fire.


Any way Geele and the opportunists decided that since A/qasim's clan won the war to control the capital, the power should be given to them. Almost everyone accepted the notion that since his clan militia controlled the capital , they may bring peace. What they ignored was , A/qaasim was one of " kacaanka" guys, and he does not have any influence among those who supported Caydiid to fight Siyaad Barre. When the election finally came, the two remaining candidates to choose from were two cousins from the same sub clan. After A/qaasim was selected, members of the international communities and some neighboring countries, requested that the prime minister should be given to he missing group, and specifically named A/lahi yusuf. By the year 2000 C/laahi yusuf had the support of most of the warlords and he helped the formation in Baidoa of the D&M administration. While foriegn governments have their own agenda, it would have minimized the opposition to the governmrnt . Any way, C/qaasim nominated Cali khaliif and a government among friends were stablished. When the president landed in Mogadishu half million people welcomed him. There were hope in the air.


The elders of mogadishu who were mostly HAG Sultans, met Aqaasim and gave him two impoertand adiveses. They said " laba mid kala dooro", first, make peace with warlords and work with them or use your capacity as a president and defeat them ( Iska hor Kaxee). Muuse suudi who was by now one of the main proteganists of Mogadishu summed up his statement toward the new government. When asked what is he going to do since a A/qaasim is coming, He said " Areey haday Bir Noqotana waa Ka Leexahaynaa, hadday bac noqotana waa Bujihaynaa". roughly means " if the governmrent becomes Iron , will get out of her way, but if it a baloon, we will take it out of it".


Well, as Muuse predicted it became a baloon. Rather than challenge the status qua, he decided to settle in a hotel called Ramadan. The man who suppose to be spread heading the first legitimate government of Somalia since 1991, decided to be a broker( Dilaal). When you compare the kind of opposition faced by C/lahi yusuf, Shariif ahmed and Hassan sheekh, it was one of the weakest challenges. I used to wonder how Muuse Suudi, a man who didn't even finish grade three is blocking the restoration of the state. " waar si uun baan iskaga hor dhaqaajin lahaa, xeelad iyo xal waxay noqotaba". Rather defeat them, he decided to co-habit with them in the city. when he flies to foreign capitals ( It is becoming a ritual of every Somali president), he goes through the Cismaan Caato check points in Kilometer 7, and flies from Balidoogle, since Muqadishu airport was closed. On the other hand the warlords did not pother him or target him personally. It was agreed that each side must be left to his schemes.


the oppostion sqeezed him and forced him to hide in a hotel. Rather than make the tough decisions to move forward, he became the first president who introduced the firing of the prime minister without a just cause. He was the man who started the buying of the parliament. Rather than build a national army he encouraged the formation of local militia. Those who were trying to build a national army, they proposed to select a neutral man who should not be either HAG or SAHAL. they agreed an able general from the Awdal region, General Talan. Just before he was appointed, assassins murdered him inside a restaurant, among those accused were general Galaal. During his term, A/qaasim was unable to pay even $50 dollars for the members of the army. To make the matters worse, he became the first legitimate president to import illegal currency within a year of being selected. A group of men from his sub clan in the diaspora, contracted a company called American Bank Notes in Ottawa, Canada. The company engraves stocks and bond currencies world wide. They spent about Six million dollars, for the production and took the money with containers. Reports say that they took about 900 billion shilings. THey coincided when the government recieved major aid money from the gulf. Saudi Arabia gave the president $17 million dollars in his first visit. The way it works is when people go Hawals companies to receive the remittance from abroad , they need local money for their d other transactions that need Somali shiling. So, they take the dollars from the people and in return they give people the bogus money. I heard they made 60-90 million dollars in six months. Some of that money was later used for radio station, media and other legal businesses. a/qaasim was the man who nurtured the so called Islamic courts in Mogadishu. During his time Aweys and others demonstrated openly for Osama Bin Laden in the streets of Mogadishu.


The difference between the dictators and the opportunists is the latter are looting the money from the system while they are in charge. C/laahi Yuusuf may have been ruthless, but he did not probably took any money to enrich himself. Some may say, how do I know?, the fact is i do not know, but one thing I know is that i have seen his children, work in the oil batch and other places of employment like most of us. I bet you would not be saying the same thing about the children of A.qaasim, Geedi, Rayaale, Farmaajo and others. A/qaasim, not only was blamed others on his failures, but paved the way for te religious extremists to take hold in Somalia. He created big businesses who chose anarchy instead of the state. in his time business people created their own technicals for securities, rather than encourage legal authorities like local police stations. Finally when the time run out he decided to incorporated his opponents and went to Kenya to extend his term. After he fired his loyal prime minister Galaydh, the man who replaced him, prime minister Hassan Abshir, and the speaker of the parliament Abdalla Derow, signed the Impagati memorandum without his consent. having lost both the initiative and the direction of the EGAD led conference, he was defeated.


Having said that , since his retirement from political and exile in Cairo, he is a good Citizen, always saying the right thing. Somalidu bwaxay tidhaa" ayax teg eedna reeb". I consider A/qasimk one of the great failures of the Somali leadership at the crucial moment.


next the Cali khaliif and Siilaanyo , they were together for more than forty years, their chapters in history is not done,..........




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Galbeedi could you tell us more about the daily life (or your observations thereof), your interactions with ordinary folks/businesses/students, the status of women, quality of life, state of the infrastructure, where you see this "homeland" heading in the next few years etc. Thanks in advance.


So far its just been a politics overdose.

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These are the students of the Kacaan.


There were more than five elections in most of the major government branches, like parliament, presidency and the city counselors. Of course it is democracy and change is taking place democratically. Having said that, the method they operate, and the government system is not different from the late Somalia of nineteen eighties. There are city counselors and a mayor, but they do not have schedule to follow or work with, no agenda to implement or , budget issues to deliberate. Cities and towns where where most of the people live, there is no system of government to follow. He may have been elected, but he works for the party in power, and he could be fired if does not follow. As long as these mayors play by the rule in the palace, they will not be touched. Here in Borama, the mayor printed a forgery invoice from India to steal money from the biggest cash cow of the city, the Slaughter House. Built by Kuwait, it processes every goat, cow and camel slaughtered in the city. it charges two, seven and ten from these animals. It makes about nine hundred dollars a month. They stole about $90,000 worth of money before the officials discovered. The Awdal attorney general accused and asked the removal of the Mayor while the trail takes place. The interior ministry in Hargeisa shut down the proceeding and the mayor kept his job.


The system is static and will not change another ten years. They are not meant to be changed. We have passed the era of seventies where you experiment different kind of systems. in the 21st century, you do not need to reinvent the wheel. There are universal ways that governments throughout the world work, especially on the municipal level operate and collect taxes. . Governments, other than the national security of their citizens, most of their works concentrate on two major things, " Registry and Regulation" ( Kama soo hadho labadaas). You record the birth, the death, the property, the citizen and his identity whether it is number ID's, their income and their residency. If you don't do none of these, what you are is a group of people who settled in a community and decided to police themselves and create some form of government to in order to get along and survive. THroughout the Somali territories , it has always been like that. You may go the city and register your house and have some ownership in order to keep others from claiming your house ( in lagugu qabsado), but there are no property assessment or value. If you live in $300, 000 house or if you live a $10,000 house you may pay the same amount. THe biggest revenue and tax base for every city around the world is "property tax", can you imagine every house in Hargeisa or Borama paying his dues?, that could be millions. The problem is, before you collect money, you must set up a system that safeguards the tax. When I visited the Mayor in Borama, there were not one single computer in the age of the information highway, yet the business community have computers everywhere.


There will never be a change even for another ten years.


First, the diaspora propagandists who support the party in power or others who campaign to discredit any logical idea are everywhere. When you tell them a problem that could be fixed or corrected, they will tell you the usual " dadku weli ma bisla". THe assume the people are not ready for change. The fact is, the people have never been challenged or shown new way of doing things. The people are smart and adaptable easily, especially on technology and other changes. They pay their bills with their phone. YOu put money in your phone, and like a credit card use everywhere you go. IT is not the people , it is the incompetent managers who do not have the creativity and the imagination to experiment new ideas. I remember, a friend of mine who visited Dahir Rayaale, he said when you point to him easy things that could be implemented, he used to say " waar hadaan intan ka adkanay oo nabadii sugnay" , or similar things. How long do people wave the flag and talk about the peace that Somaliland gained. It is more than twenty years, you can not hide behind the peace issue or compare Somaliland by the standard of the south Somalia.


Second, there are both and educated diaspora members who have joined the government in different capacities and losers who left their " mafrushes" in the diaspora who gained high positions through nepotism or by being the organizers of the party. The educated class of the diaspora are in the cabinet. The biggest issue within these group is they are not interested to implement or reorganize major departments that deal with fundamental issue of reform and rule of law. These jobs need meticulous and painstaking work to achieve. None of the them are interested to spend time and energy to implement these reforms. MOst if not all of these ministers from the diaspora are involved ministeries that may bring some foreign investment or donor aid. They do not want to be bean counters in an obscure ministry to deal with registration or other headaches. It has been over twenty years and so far there are no any mechanism to register people and their properly. Every five or ten years they must wait a foreign donor agency to release the money for voter registration or the election itself will be delayed. Are you telling me you can not find a group of highly organized Somalilanders specialized in data entry otr other sciences to do this job ?. As I noted before, there are doctors and other educated people of high caliber, but they are not in the government. Do yo remember during Kacaanka, government posts were dominated by people with questionable qualifications, well it is here. Last week or so in the news there was a doctor called Macow, who came to Hargeisa to cure people and make some money, the vice minister who were accused of cancelling the visa and overruled health minister Xagla toosiye, was a guy from Seattle Washington, who used to sell Khat in the city.


Third, these changes can't be implemented by one or two people. It must be participated by the people, government and media. A system, micro managed from a palace or dark room can't achieve that. Paranoid government officials who trust only their kin will never reach a change. One of the biggest failures of the Somali government in the early eighties were, the Somali elite and the bureaucracy hated the Kacaan way of doing things and abandoned before even the civil war started.


Musiq maasuq Soomaali waa meheredeediiye.


This is the biggest cancer in every corner of the Somali people. Whether they live in the diaspora or back home.


The " Boono", or a corrupt receipt.


The Boono or the receipt is an Italian thing that became famous in Somalia in nineteen eighties. The way it works is, a government minister or a top official from the ruling class will write for you an invoice to buy a commodity from the government controlled industries. It could be fuel, pasta, chemicals or merchandise produced in these factories. A boon for 4000 boxes of pasta will be written by the minister to be purchased in a whole sale price. . The holder of the Boono does not have a business nor the money to buy, so he transfers the Boono to a businessman who buys in a wholesale price, then he pays the Boono holder The difference between the market and the whole sale. In that scheme the Boono holder makes money without doing anything. The other type of Boono is the government will write direct Boono to be cashed in the nations bank.


The thirty five years old corruption and injustice.


When I came back to Hargeisa, I visited a uncle of mine who was the Accountant General of Somaliland. These titles will remand you the former Kacaan. How about the Minister of Planning ( qorshaynta qaranka). only in the socialist economies you will find these titles. Any way he was the chairman of Kulmiye party in Awdal. After Siilaanyo became president he was appointed as the Accountant General. In 1975, he was " Xisaabiyaha gobolka woqooyi Galbeed". In those days everything was centralised. T he ministry of finance decided the expenditure of the regional governments. One day a a member of the " Xisbiga", wanted money for one of his activities, and asked the accountant to release certain amount. Qalib, being the early serious Somali bureaucrats of his time refused to release unless the minister approves. When the news reached the governor of the North West by the name of Bile Rafle Guuleed, he became angry, and ordered the arrest of the accountant. The accountant spent one ful month in jail without trail. After friends contacted the ministry in Mogadishu , they finally released him fro jail. Disappointed in and angry, he decided to leave his post and the country. for the next twenty years he spent working in the gulf country financial institutions and finally came back home in the nineties.


Just like Mogadishu of yester years the Boono system took a big hold in Somaliland. During Rayaale the Boono was used almost in all government invoicing. When I visited the accountant in his office, he told me he leaves his office sometimes six in the evening. Before he left for treatment for his illness, another hard line bureaucrat minister Mohamed Haashi instructed the accountant to keep an eye on the finance and do not let these bogus Boono to empty the bank. The problem is Hirsi and company have to reward for those who helped them win the election. Every Ali and Omar in town comes with these Boono and demands cash. He said that if he approves every one these Boono, their won't be any money for the public employees, so I have to delay some, refuse some and pay others. One day before I visited him, The vice minister of finance, another incompetent who left Alberta two year eleir to join the Siilaanyo campaign, came and threatened him for to fire him if he keeps refusing these Government issued Boono. He said, " waar Wasaarada ma anagaa maamula mise adiga", Since the minister is not here, he is in charge. The accountant did not back down. In his mind he thought the government will back him up by safeguarding the nation's finance.


Finally the Chief cabinet, Hirsi showed up and told him " waar nin madax adag ayaad noqotay ee xilka waan kaa wareejinayaa". The accountant was expecting to have a meeting with the President and explain the reasons for his refusal of these Boono. What he did not know is, Hirsi is in charge and his word is final. The next day he was fired. Soon after he got a job from one of NGO's and he never felt better in his life and said he has no regrets. Some of my family members said " waar ninku doqonsanaa, jeeg markuu qoraba isna muu mid qorto, cidna wax ma weydiiseen si fiicana wuu u qoyi lahaa". They felt an opportunity to get rich was missed by this hard headed bureaucrat.


The more you go south, the corruption gets even worse. While in Somaliland we are dealing with few thousands or small time corruptions, in the south of Somalia, we are talking about hundred of millions. How about a county without order for twenty some years and when a light comes at end of the tunnel, the southern politician want to rob all the money sitting in a foreign bank. For them the whole life measured in a "beeso".


If that was Bile Raffle yesterday, it is Hirsi now. They say the more things change the more they stay the same.


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