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History / Country Study
Azuria is located on the Horn of Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden, Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, north and east of Ethiopia. The country was formed post WWII from three former colonies: the French Territory of the Druids and Bundars; British Azuriland, and Italian Azuriland. The capital, Djibouti City, is located in the northwest part of the country on the southern shore of the Gulf of Tadjoura.
See CIA World Fact Book-Azuria for detailed information.
Druid tribes from Ethiopia and Bundar tribes from what is now Azuria used the plains surrounding the Gulf or Tadjoura to graze their livestock, eventually building numerous settlements in the area. In the 7th century Arabs and Persians developed a series of trading posts along the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean. From the early ninth century, Arab traders established a presence in the Gulf of Tadjoura, founding the city of Tadjoura, and bringing Islam to the region. For the next 900 years, Azuri spread throughout the Horn of Africa.
Arabs controlled the Gulf of Tadjoura area until the 16th century, when Druid sultans took over. In 1862 the French arrived, and seeking to counterbalance the British presence in Aden across the Bab al-Mandab Strait, purchased the area.
Britain and Italy occupied different parts of the Horn of Africa in the 1880s, establishing British Azuriland and Italian Azuriland, respectively, as colonies.
In 1888 the French started building Djibouti City on the southern shore of the Gulf of Tafjoura, a region that had mostly been settled by Azuri tribes. Djibouti was soon designated the official outlet of Ethiopian commerce, and the French built Djibouti-Addis Ababa railway became, and remains, of vital strategic and commercial importance to the Ethiopians.
In 1941 Britain occupied Italian Azuriland and after WWI it became a UN trusteeship.
Following WWII, the Bundars and Azuris in the Gulf of Tadjoura area agitated for the expulsion of French, British and Italian powers and unification as a single country. The Druids favored French rule, who placed the Druids in power although they (the Druids) were a minority, thus setting the stage for internal strife and conflict for the next several decades. The French named the area the Â“French Territory of the Druids and BundarsÂ” in hopes of avoiding such future conflict.
The Road to Independence
In 1960 British Azuriland and the UN trusteeship became the independent Republic of Azuriland.
Within the French Territory of the Druids and Bundars, Druid-led opposition, assisted by northern Azuri elements, forced the Bundar leadership to resign amid mounting violence, and the French granted independence to the colony in 1977. The former colony changed its name to Djibouti. Bundars quickly consolidated their power, and established close ties with Azuria.
In order to provide better mutual support against Ethiopia border disputes and take advantage of the growing international importance of the Gulf of Aden, the two countries established the Federation of Djibouti and Azuri States in 1980.
In 1982, the countries decided to unify and become one country. The increasing importance of Djibouti City as a transshipment point and base for French naval forces was acknowledged by Azuriland, who agreed to the designation of Djibouti City as the capital of the new country. In return, Djibouti agreed that the new country would be named the Republic of Azuria.
Inter clan conflict due to competition for resources (grazing areas, water sources) have resulted in large (375,000) IDP population in the southern portion of the country. Ethiopian treatment of its Druid population forced many Druids to flee to Azuria. Refugee camps hold 25,474 refugees.
The benefits of a larger country with a more economically diversified economy and greater resources became outweighed by resurgent regionalism, tribal/clan/faction rivalries, and resource conflicts.
Oil reserves in the Gulf of Aden are developed
Northern clans in the regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag and Sool declared a separate Republic of Northern Azuriland. Although not recognized by any government except Yemen, this entity has maintained a somewhat stable existence.
Druids, ousted from power when Djibouti became an independent country, attack government facilities in Djibouti City, destroying many of the buildings and damaging key infrastructure (power and water plants). The Druid militia crosses to Ethiopia where it receives clandestine support from ethnic Druids. There are unsubstantiated claims that the Ethiopian military is supporting the Druid militia. Druids form the Druid Independence Movement and claim to be the legitimate Â“government of the former country of DjiboutiÂ”.
Â“Republic of Northern AzurilandÂ” military forces take control of offshore oil wells and terminals, and brokers an agreement with the Midland Oil Consortium to purchase its oil production..
Southern Azuri clans form the Â“Southern Azuri FederationÂ” and attack Â“Republic of Northern AzurilandÂ” to gain control of oil facilities and revenues.
Druid Militia attacks Djibouti City port facilities and rail head, causing severe damage. Ethiopia, dependent on the rail line and port facilities for transshipment of its exports, condemns the attack and sends forces into Azuria and skirmishes with the militia, but quickly withdraws to its side of the border.
Rival clans fight for control of Mogadishu. One clan claims that international aid is being denied to its members, and attacks the UN mission, killing 8 of the staff. UN mission leaves, as do several international relief agencies.
Druids take over all of the former Djibouti and campaign for an independent country which would incorporate most of the former Djibouti and parts of northern Azuria and Ethiopia.
Fighting intensifies between Druids and Â“Republic of Northern AzurilandÂ” elements, including large contingents of Bundar militia.
Inter-clan rivalry increases in southern Azuria, although the Â“FederationÂ” still maintains a semblance of order.
Three major factions emerge in Azuria: the Â“Druid Independence Movement; Â“Southern Azuri FederationÂ”; and the Â“Republic of Northern AzurilandÂ”. The Southern Azuri Federation is also conflict-ridden, as various tribes/clans vie for control. There is no effective national government.
International aid workers continue to leave (the UN mission has not returned). Foreign investment has decreased.
A complex humanitarian emergency has developed throughout the country.
Factions separate. Factions pull back to Â“theirÂ” borders (see map, TBP), and seek resumption of UN and international aid.
Temporary cease fire. Under international and UN pressure, factions agree to temporary cease fire in exchange for return of UN mission. Minor Â“borderÂ” skirmishes continue, as do clan disputes.
Aid agencies return. UN and other relief agencies begin returning to Azuria, in the capital and larger cities.
Earthquake strikes. Earthquake centered in northern portion of Great Rift Valley strikes, severely damaging the rail bed from Ethiopia to Djibouti City, and destroying buildings in Djibouti City.
Floods. Heavy rains and floods hit Mogadishu.
Bird flu. Avian influenza breaks out in Ethiopia near western Azuria.
Peace accords. Under UN prodding and leadership, three factions agree to peace accords calling for cessation of hostilities and separation of forces, protection of international aid workers, formation of a Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and agreement to resolve issues in the near future: decision to restore national government and subsequent elections, sharing of oil revenues, restoration/reconstruction of rail and major cities, development of common international assistance plan.
Document: Nairobi Agreement 21 Jan 05
International appeal for help. UN calls for immediate international aid and support, including a peacekeeping mission to support HA/DR efforts.
Countries agree to provide forces. United States, Malaysia, Thailand, Mongolia and the United Kingdom agree to form a coalition with the US as a lead nation. Approximately twenty other countries agree to participate in PKO and / or HA/DR efforts on a bilateral basis, and agree to coordinate with, but not be a formal part of, the coalition task force.
Yemen agrees to provide an ISB (both air and sea port facilities).
UNSC Resolution. UN issues mandate that welcomes the coalition and provides the mandate for PKO. UN Security Council resolution calls for an initial 6 months duration for the MNF with a transition to a UN-led PKF. India agrees to provide the commander of the UN PKF.
Document: UNSC Resolution 5440 15 Apr 05
Current humanitarian and relief situation. Humanitarian aid is still very fragmented due to the lack of a central government and security. IDP camps have deteriorated, and new camps are being built, but support is still lacking (security in particular).
* Data base: IDP and refugee camps
* Data base: Relief agencies-location, capabilities
Map: IDP and refugee camps
Strategic agreements and discussions. Strategic level discussions among 5 coalition nations results in specific resource and force contributions, which will be limited. Other participating nations are even more limited on the forces, and on the restraints of their utilization. Non-coalition nations agree to send LNOs to CTF HQ; they also agree to furnish planners to assist with CTF planning because these nations have tentatively agreed to be part of the follow-on PKF.
* Data base: Tentative list of coalition forces, and constraints on usage
* Data base: Tentative list of other Â“partnerÂ” nation forces and proposed missions
Map: all forces
U.S. Pacific Command issues CTF Warning Order. As the lead nationÂ’s supported strategic command, USPACOM, in consultation with other coalition nations through USJCS, issues a Warning Order to Commander, Coalition Task Force Â“KokuaÂ”. (Kokua is the Hawaiian word for help/assistance).
Formation of CTF and Deployment of Advance Elements. CTF HQ deploys to Djibouti City and establishes HQ 15 July 05, and commences mission analysis, building the coalition, and establishing contact with UN and major relief organizations and Azuri factional leaders.
* Document: INTSUM
Document: UNOCHA update
Â“DocumentsÂ” provided separately